The Uniform Protected Series Act

In 1996, Delaware was the first state to adopt a series limited liability company statute. Since then, 12 additional states, the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico have as well. 1 Each of these 15 jurisdictions has its own unique series LLC statute. The lack of uniformity across the

Series LLC Scholarship

This post links to most of the leading scholarship and thought leadership on the series limited liability structure (and it is continually updated). Through the Looking Glass: Series LLCs in 2015 by Allen Sparkman (April 7, 2015) (SSRN link). The Internal Affairs Doctrine and Limited

Read this before signing your next real estate purchase contract.

Many new real estate investors contact me about forming a series LLC after they have signed a contract to purchase their first real estate investment. That in-and-of-itself is not a problem. The problem is that nearly all of these contracts are in the purchaser’s individual name

What is the purpose of a series LLC?

A common question I am asked is What is the purpose of a series LLC? In my opinion there are two primary purposes of a series LLC. The first is to allow the creation of separate entities inside an LLC without having to create separate LLCs. Each of these series entities have their own

A suggested best practice for naming your series LLC in Texas.

One of the frequently asked questions we get by real estate investors about setting up a series LLC in Texas is how to name the LLC and each of the individual series. Some attorneys recommend using “Series 1” or “Series A” but we suggest a different approach. T

How is a series LLC treated for tax purposes in Texas?

This is perhaps one of the most frequently asked questions I receive from prospective clients inquiring about the series LLC structure. In Texas, a series LLC (despite the number of series) files one franchise tax report and one public information report under its Texas taxpayer ident

How to use the series LLC structure to hold real estate investments.

Over at the real estate blog,, Ali Boone wrote an excellent article entitled “Should You Put Your Rental Properties in an LLC?” As of today, the article has generated over 90 comments. Below, I have republished my comment from back in August here for my r

A suggested best practice for applying for an EIN for an individual series of a series LLC.

When applying for an employer identification number (“EIN“) on you must provide the legal name of the LLC that is applying for the EIN. The dilemma presented to applicants is that the name of the LLC on file with the Texas Secretary of State (and the one that shoul

My recommended signature block & acknowledgement for a Texas series LLC.

The series limited liability company is quickly gaining popularity among real estate investors for many reasons. One common operational issue I’ve encountered representing real estate investors, software companies, and lenders that have made use of the series LLC structure is ho